The largest expanses of bottomland hardwood forests found in Barataria-Terrebonne occur in the northern area east of the Atchafalaya Floodway, but can be found throughout the floodplains of the estuary flanking the rivers and bayous.

Maintained by seasonal riverine flooding, bottomland hardwood forests are characterized by alternating wet and dry periods. These seasonally or occasionally flooded forests with hydric soils support the largest number of tree and shrub species of any habitat in the system and include hackberry, American elm, green ash, overcup oak, water hickory, water oak, swamp dogwood, sweetgum, red maple, and dwarf palmetto. These forests sustain Louisiana black bear and provide nesting habitat for bald eagles and migratory songbirds. They also are prize hunting areas for deer, squirrel, and wood duck.